One of such republics is depicted in «Thoughts about the British» Yu.
One of such republics is depicted in «Thoughts about the British» Yu.
Such a mysterious fate befell, by the way, some other manuscripts of G. Kosynka. Some of them have already «appeared» and it has not been possible to come across such a short story as «Perevesla» yet. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, the author handed it over to one of the periodicals of the republic some time before his arrest and execution. The published text of «Faust» in this magazine cannot be considered (from the point of view of textology) the last will of the author, but I have no doubt that it belongs to G. Kosyntsi. Working on a literary portrait of the writer (written in 1973 and published in the «Soviet Writer» in 1989), I became convinced that he belongs to those artists who are known (felt) from a few phrases written by them. And in this case we have not a few phrases, but a whole work, though not finished. I suppose that the publishers of «Ukrainian Sowing» could have made some verbal additions or corrections to the novel, but the spirit of the work remained unchanged: it is purely Kosynchyn both in terms of life material and the nature of its artistic comprehension. In its final form, Faust could be perhaps the most profound work of the writer himself and of all Ukrainian short stories of the 1920s. The motive of the civil war, to which G. Kosynka addressed here, was raised by him to the level of a world, so to speak, theme. It is of fundamental importance for understanding both the dramas of revolutionary reality and the historical and psychological peculiarities of the Ukrainian people in general, who sought the truth of life on the difficult paths of the revolution with the same painful obsession as the legendary Faustus from the tragedy of JV Goethe. history of Europe. European Faustus, as is well known, did not find that truth, but left people with a thirst for search and an indestructible faith in the great spiritual possibilities of mankind. The same, albeit on a specifically local, purely Ukrainian territory, appears in the novel by G. Kosynka and «Faust of Podillya» – Prokip Konyushin, whose search for truth ended in madness and death in the ant-Bolshevik gates. Muravyovshchyna is one of the darkest pages in the history of the civil war in Ukraine. Its Ukraino-Zher programs, carried out under the banner of Soviet power, cost the Ukrainian people dearly. And not only Ukrainian. G. Kosynka shows in «Faust» that the ants pushed in front of them the representatives of any nation and imagined a new life only as a dungeon-type regime. Therefore, in the dungeon depicted by the writer, Russians, Poles, Jews, some Muslims and other peoples also «successfully» died together with Ukrainians. The central figure among them is Prokip Konyushin, whom the Russian Klentsov called Faustus for his characteristic gray hair, but this name of the hero JV Goethe, as I have already said, is related to Konyushina not only externally: not only are modern ants planted in ants. , but also history, not one person, but the whole nation. The second problem of the short story «Faust» is the philosophy of existence of the Ukrainian people and its eternal «proud knot». The essence of that «knot» is concentrated in the line from the poem mentioned in the short story:
«The blind village is raging, and Ukraine is spitting blood.» The village of Ukraine really «raged» during the years of the civil war, but often remained «blind» because it had no clear social guidelines and, moreover, stood up spontaneously, in the spirit of guerrilla warfare. As a result, the formation of so-called «own» republics in many villages, which in turn were drowned in blood. One of such republics is depicted in Yu. Yanovsky’s Duma o Britanka, and the republic lasted the longest, almost until the middle of the lab report writer online free 1920s, in a village near Kholodny Yar, near Chyhyryn, about which we have an artistic echo in D. Buzko’s story beast «… The tragedy of Clover, depicted by G. Kosynka, is that the ants see him as an «independent» and he considers himself a sincere and conscious fighter for the freedom of his people. The finale of this tragedy is both natural and artistically motivated: the hero dies in the Bolshevik «secrets» and the writer sees in this death not an accident, but typical circumstances in which the socially and nationally enslaved people found themselves. Prokip Konyushin is another of those «prodigal sons» of Ukraine, who at the decisive moments of history cannot reach the pillar road to the truth. European Faustus was looking for her «with a prayer book in his hands» (P. Tychyna), and «Faustus of Podillia» even took up arms, but it was not enough. Something is wrong with man in this world, says the author, and it seems to him that human sacrifice will not end as long as the world is ruled by discord and various forms of hostility, while Klentsov’s councils of consolation «burn» the Yatskivskys and the One-Horned aspirations of the Kononchuks and Konyushins, and the Watchmen «for a lot of rotten sausage» will be served even before the greatest oppressors of those Kononchuks and Konyushins … The short story «Faust» belongs to those works in connection with which there is no need to speak separately about «artistic means». writing skills «and other purely aesthetic attributes of creative thinking. Everything in it is» in its place «even in the unfinished version, and every detail of the so-called form» works «with such expressiveness to reveal the content that is completely dissolved in it. From the height of the years, one can only regret once again with bitterness what a powerful talent in the person of Hryhoriy Kosynka Ukrainian prose has lost. It is partly comforting that his «Stefanyk’s» baton in short stories of his time was picked up by Hryhir Tyutyunnyk, and not far away, perhaps, already at the time when our land gives birth to their even younger brother. For it was not in vain that Prokip Konyushin repeated: «Hundreds will lie down, thousands will fight instead. «Kosinka was arrested on charges of» organizing the preparation of terrorist acts against employees of the Soviet government. , Bureviy, Antin and Ivan Krushelnytsky) states: «The court found that most of the accused arrived in the USSR through Poland, and some – through Romania, with the task of committing terrorist acts in the territory of the USSR. During the detention of most of the accused, revolvers and hand grenades were confiscated.Guided by the resolution of the CEC of the USSR of December 1, 1934 and Art.art. 54 and 54-11 of the Criminal Code of the Ukrainian SSR, an exit session of the military board … sentenced … Hryhoriy Kosynka-Striltsa … to be shot. Property … confiscated … «The posthumous rehabilitation of the writer took place on October 19, 1957. A copy of the certificate in the form No. 30, stored in the archives of the Vernadsky Central Scientific Library of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, states: «Case against Kosynka-Strelets GM., arrested on November 5, 1934, reviewed by the military board of the Supreme Court of the USSR on October 19, 1957. The verdict of the military b oard of December 13-15, 1934 in respect of Kosynka-Strelets GM was revoked due to newly discovered circumstances and the case was terminated for lack of corpus delicti. Scarf-Sagittarius rehabilitated posthumously. «
Rehabilitation of artistic and journalistic works of the writer took place in several stages. During Khrushchev’s «thaw», fourteen short stories were published, which allegedly did not contradict the content of the Soviet situation and had, as M. Rylsky wrote in the preface to the collection, «great cognitive value … indisputable ideological and aesthetic value . » Later, in the 1970s, «Triangular Battle», «Questionnaire» and «Dark Night» timidly joined them in various publications, and the entire artistic and journalistic heritage of the writer (excluding «Faust» and «Meeting») was published only in 1988. An important place in last year’s edition, entitled «Harmony», was occupied by works (eight short stories), which the Soviet critics considered the most «hostile» – gangster, not ideologically enlightened, etc. In fact, they were about the drama of those lost «knights of the dark night» who could not «catch the trails» and created the ground for otamanship, intergroup strife, and so on. Such phenomena, as is well known, have always (and especially in Ukraine) been accompanied by significant social upheavals and upheavals, and the writer quite naturally reproduced them with great power and great human pain. Together with other short stories and journalistic sketches, these «enemy» works of the writer give if not an epic of revolution and civil war (as M. Rylsky wrote in the above-mentioned preface), then a really broad picture of the national disaster brought to our land by the Bolshevik revolution. Marxist-Leninists drive people into a utopian, solitary confinement commune. At the same time, G. Kosynka’s short stories are an illustrative example of artistic searches and discoveries by which Ukrainian prose of the first third of the XX century moved (moved) from «old» realism to modern forms of aesthetic thinking. The greatest successes were achieved here by V. Stefanyk and O. Kobylyanska, V. Vynnychenko and V. Pidmohylny … G. Kosynka was among them.
Oleksandr Dovzhenko is a legend of cinematography in Ukraine
The seventy-five-year journey of Dovzhenkivska Film Studio is famous for the deeds and names of many artists. More than once their films were presented at prestigious film festivals around the world. Among the achievements – 75 awards of international and 65 All-Union film festivals, 17 state and 9 national awards. There is also the highest award of the American Film Academy for the film «Rainbow»
Development of cinematography in Ukraine
The seventy-five-year journey of Dovzhenkivska Film Studio is famous for the deeds and names of many artists. More than once their films were presented at prestigious film festivals around the world. Among the achievements – 75 awards of international and 65 All-Union film festivals, 17 state and 9 national awards. There is also the highest award of the American Film Academy for the film «Rainbow». And the biography of the concern began back in 1928, when in the unfinished pavilion at night (because construction continued during the day) was the shooting of the first film «Vanka and the Avenger» by Aksen Lunin. In the same year, two more short films were shot – Kaufman’s «Manger» and Vetrov’s «Eleventh». By the way, the name of Dzyga Vetrov is associated with the appearance of the sound documentary film «Symphony of Donbass». The film was widely screened abroad, and Charlie Chaplin said enthusiastically about it: «I never imagined that industrial noise could be made so attractive.» In 1929, 10 films had already been made.